So far, just by way of review, we’ve asked some basic questions and said there’s a lot of controversy out there but you need to ask and answer and you do the research and you evaluate how did life begin? Was it evolution or creation? Why did life begin? Was it random chance? Or was there a designer, a creator, our personal God who cares about us?
We ask the question how did plants and animals develop? Was it a single, simple cell that multiplied into everything that we see now? Or did God create plants and species in kind that would reproduce after their own kind and man is the pinnacle of creation?
And then the last question we said, well, what best supports the fossil record? Darwin had his doubts and he had concerns that someday the fossil record would be more complete and we found that we didn’t have a lot more completion. Scientists will argue about those claims but the record is pretty clear.
I think you’re going to have to put on your thinking caps and just really zone in and think very hard for about fifteen to seventeen minutes because what we want to evaluate now is which claim, science or scripture best answers the most recent discoveries? These are very, very significant and I want to jump right into them.
The first discovery is in astronomy or physics. It’s the Big Bang. The Big Bang Theory is interesting history and so I’m gonna, again, be doing a little research and a little work with you.
Dinesh D’Souza does a great job of looking back over history and summarizing what’s happened in the Big Bang. He writes, “By the 20th century Albert Einstein published his equation of general relativity and then a Dutch astronomer named Willem de Sitter, found a solution to them that predicted an expanding universe. This, too, is a highly significant prediction because if the universe had been expanding and if the galaxies were moving farther and farther apart, this implies that in the past they were once closer together. If the universe has been blowing up and blowing out for its duration, that means that it must have had an actual beginning”.
“In the late 1920s, Edwin Hubble of the famous now Hubble telescope, peering through a hundred inch telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory in California observed the “red shift” of a distant nebulae that the galaxies were moving rapidly away from one another. The number of stars that were involved and dispersed suggested an astoundingly far more vast universe than scientists ever imagined”.
“Scientists realized right away that the galaxies were flying apart. Not because of some mysterious force thrusting them away from one another. Rather, they were moving apart because they were once flung apart by a primeval explosion. Extrapolating backward in time, all the galaxies seem to have one common point of origin, approximately fifteen billion years ago”.
“Then, in a single cosmic explosion - the Big Bang - the universe that we inhabit came into existence”.
“’The universe was filled with light’, Steven Weinberg writes. In fact, ‘it was light that then formed the dominant constituent of the universe’”.
Now, I just want to make a small point here. This is a scientist and I’ve used this scientist’s name one other time. It was Steven Weinberg who talked about his motivation for going into science was to eradicate religion and superstition and in fact, he admitted it drove him.
And now, he’s looking at the scientific evidence and he says something very akin to, let there be light, which I find very interesting.
Well, the theory of expanding universe was consistent, not only with the second law of thermodynamics but also Einstein’s theory. Even so, this is very, very interesting, the Big Bang, though thoroughly accepted in our day, when it was being developed the first ten, twenty years even, it was not well accepted by scientists.
Robert Jastrow cites a number of examples of very intelligent scientists and astronomers who rejected the Big Bang. And then, Jastrow argues, the reason for several leading scientists, where they were troubled by the notion of a Big Bang, because if true, it would imply that there was a moment of creation in which everything, the universe and its laws came into existence.
It’s very important to recognize that before the Big Bang, there were no laws of physics. In fact, the laws of physics cannot be used to explain the Big Bang because the Big Bang itself produced the laws of physics.
When you read and study about Einstein’s life, it’s very interesting. He was very opposed to the Big Bang theory. In his book, the Fingerprint of God, Hugh Ross cites Einstein. Einstein openly fumed over the implications of a beginning point. Particularly concerning a creator or prime mover for the universe.
Einstein later gave grudging acceptance for a beginning and eventually to the presence of a superior reasoning power. But never did he accept the doctrine of a personal God. What we know is the universe is not eternal, the universe had a beginning, there was a creative moment.
And, it’s very interesting that Einstein, in his whole journey, was so opposed to it that he came up with an alternative theory about why there couldn’t be a Big Bang and over time he later recanted and said, the greatest error of my scientific life was the theory I came up to refute the Big Bang.
So all I want you to know, there are very significant, scientific discoveries and the question would be, which theory or claim, evolution or creation best answers the question?
Well, let’s jump to the fossil record. 1995, if you were alive then and were a Time Magazine reader, you would open Time Magazine, in fact, I googled it, it was kind of fun. And it opened up and part of the subtitle, Time Magazine, 1995, December 5th - Darwin’s Dilemma.
And in that they describe what’s called now the Cambrian Explosion. Where, in virtually all the blueprint of every animal species burst into being in one strata. The appearance of rich biological diversity within an instant of geological time, directly contradicts Darwin’s theory of low, gradual, slow change.
So, we see, the Big Bang begins to say, wait a minute…there was a moment. The fossil record, instead of this slow, graduated, they find this section in the geological structure were bursting out at one time instead of slow, multiple, every type of animals that we’ve ever found.
Third is molecular biology. Now, this is where you gotta put your thinking cap on just a little bit, it gets a little bit hairy. And so, again, Lee Strobel did a great job of summarizing in a few paragraphs.
Molecular biology means inside this cell, what actually happened inside the cell. Evolution used to be a lot easier for many scientists to accept because not too many years ago, they didn’t see a big gap between non-living matter and basic living things.
Darwin, after all, had only access to a microscope that would multiply two to three hundred times. So when he looked at a single cell organism through the microscope, it looked pretty uncomplicated. In fact, Darwin himself used the word “simple” to describe single cell organisms.
All he could see when he looked through the microscope was a roundish mass that was surrounded by a membrane with a semi-liquid fluid. In fact, even fifty, sixty years ago, the textbooks that you read and that I read, if you’re that old, made statements that inside the nucleus is actually nothing but a clear fluid.
But today, thanks to the more powerful microscopes that we now have and the research that has been done, we know that a single living cell organism, the most basic unit of any living thing, is incredibly complex.
In fact, it’s so complicated that the greatest computers can’t fully understand it. In fact, today, molecular biologists, you gotta get ready for this…I mean, a cell. You can’t see it, it’s a dot, I mean small, small, small. But now it’s multiplied thousands of times. Inside of it, and they’re going to describe, a little bit later we’ll talk about DNA. But in the DNA alone, there are 3.1 billion letters just in the DNA of one single cell.
The molecular structure is how it all works. Here’s how molecular scientists describe a single cell today. Single cell organisms are high-tech factories. They’re complete with artificial languages and decoding systems. They have central memory banks that store and retrieve impressive amounts of information.
They have precise control systems that regulate the automatic assembly of the components. They have a proof-reading and a quality-control mechanisms that safe-guard against errors. They have assembly systems that use principles of prefabrication and modular construction. Can you imagine that all happening inside one little cell?
And, they have a complete replication system that includes every living cell that allows the organism to duplicate itself with bewildering speed. Friends, Charles Darwin was clearly wrong on this point. A living cell, far from being simple, is one of the most complex things on the earth.
It’s very difficult to believe that this could have happened by chance. In fact, one researcher, and I’ll try and not stay so technical, but I have small paragraph from a scientific journal that explains what has to happen in one single cell for life to be viable.
A simple cell would need a vast number of parts. At least two hundred and thirty-nine protein molecules each containing four hundred and forty-five amino acids, all of which are made up of ten to twenty atoms. Of the hundreds of amino acids, only twenty are used in proteins. And they can’t simply float around randomly.
Now get this, all four hundred and forty-five of them must be lined up in a single line in perfect, sequential order for a protein to function. For a single cell to spring to life, four hundred and forty-five amino acids would have to accidentally line up perfectly. Not once, but two hundred and thirty-nine times to form twenty-nine proteins, which would make a living cell.
Now, I don’t know if you could follow all those numbers and all the logic. But can you imagine taking five or six pennies or even ten pennies in your pocket and taking, maybe, a marker with red and you write, one on one penny, two on the next penny, three on the next penny, all the way to ten. Put them in your pocket and then, all you have to do, is pull them out, one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten. In the exact sequential order without looking.
What’s the probability of doing that? Actually, someone did that and it’s ten to the something with a twenty after it. Okay, now, we’re not talking about ten pennies. We’re talking about four hundred and forty-five amino acids that have to line up perfectly, not once, but two hundred and thirty-nine times.
This is why non-Christian scientists, who are looking at the evidence, are looking at this evidence and saying, this can’t happen by chance. No matter how many billions of years you could add to your equation, which was the safe guard in the past. Before we could see and know what we know now. You could always say, well, it just took a really long time.
But it doesn’t matter how long it would take. The probabilities of that happening once. Now, all that would do, if that happened, you know what you have? One little single cell. That’s not somewhere between six hundred to a thousand million species that we see today.
And so, the point is, those are the most recent discoveries in astronomy and physics and the fossil record and in molecular biology, you make the choice. What makes the most sense?
Let’s move to the recent discoveries in genetics. Well, before I do, let me, it was a famous book a few years ago but a molecular biologist who became very famous and also has taken a lot of flak and has presented some things that are semi-controversial. He, I think, in his book, Darwin’s Black Box, makes a good summary statement of what we’ve just talked about.
He says, to Darwin, the cell was a black box. Its interworkings were utterly mysterious to him. Now, the black box has been opened and we know how it works. Applying Darwin’s test, and we’ll get to that, it’s in your notes. Applying Darwin’s test to the ultra-complex world of molecular machinery and cellular systems that have been discovered over the past forty years, we can say that Darwin’s theory has absolutely broken down.
And what it was saying, in Darwin’s test, as you look in the notes. This is Charles Darwin, “If it could be demonstrated that any complex organ existed, which could not possibly have been formed by numerous, successive, slight modifications, my theory would absolutely break down”. And what Behe is saying is, it’s been demonstrated, your theory breaks down.
The next area is genetics or DNA coded information and under each one of these I put an author and a reference that you can, some of you love science, you wanna go read and dig deeper. And others are waiting… as soon as you get done of this science stuff, this is really going to be a lot more fun.
So, there’s something for everybody. Let’s look at the DNA research. DNA is a part of every cell that contains the genetic code. Every living thing, even the most basic, contain DNA. The DNA we have has millions of component parts that are called nucleates and they are arranged in a very specific sequence.
DNA - here’s a way to picture it. It’s like the software of the cell. It’s like the computer program that makes it work. The DNA orchestrates or functions in a way so that all of the cell and all of its growth can replicate with uncanny accuracy.
In other words, the DNA in your body can’t have a bad day. When a baby is born and conceived, it has to be error free. In fact, we know, certain times, it’s not error free.
We’ll look at a fellow later, a very, very committed Christian who is in charge of the human genome concept where they’re discovering the human genes and the order and the sequence and we’ll learn a little bit later that Francis Collins said the job that he was given, as they were trying to find out what pair of genes…
Now, here are two pair of genes out of three billion. He said it was like trying to find a burned out light bulb in every house in all the United States. And then he came up with a mathematical equation to develop how he could cut through all that and he discovered the pairing that caused cystic fibrosis.
And as a result of that, he became a pretty big scientific hero. But all I want you to see is how complex and amazing these things are in your DNA.
These days, with scientific advances, we can store a lot of information. I remember in college, we thought it was really cool, and I will date myself but, anybody remember going to those machines with the microfiche? That was, oh boy, can you imagine all this information on this little thing?
Well, now we have these little chips and forget the little chips, I’ve got five thousand songs on this little thing in my iPod. What I want you to know that compared to the DNA that God’s put in your body and my body and every living thing, that is nothing.
In fact, I love this, in the genetic information and DNA in a microscopic single cell organism, if it was spelled out in English, it would equal the whole volume of the Encyclopedia Britannica.
If you, when you were in your mother’s womb the size of a dot, if you could go in there and remove the DNA and uncoil it, it would be six feet tall and would have encoded on it, precise instructions for piecing together every part of your body. From your six hundred muscles to your two million optic nerves to your one hundred billion nerve cells. Is that awesome?
And as you sit here today, every single cell in your body contains that entire blueprint. In fact, if you would take a teaspoon of this DNA and you would fill it to the top, this is how much information you would have in this one little teaspoon. You could contain the precision instructions to build every single species of organism that has ever existed on the planet, estimated at six hundred to one thousand million species.
And with the room left over, I mentioned earlier, you could put all the information of all the books that have ever written in all time all in that little teaspoon.
You see, DNA is unbelievable. It’s not the mere existence but its complexity. It’s the divine computer program that demonstrates that there must have been a programmer.
World class expert in chemistry of DNA, Robert Shapiro, who is an evolutionist was asked, what do you think are the chances that DNA could have been formed by a random process? This is an evolutionist. This isn’t Chip Ingram telling people they should believe in God… What’s the likelihood? His answer. None. It’s absolute nonsense.
Dr. Francis Crick who shared the Nobel Prize for discovering DNA has said, he is convinced that life could not have ever evolved from non-living matter on the earth.
And so, just for some of you, that just need, like a break from DNA and the Big Bang and your head hurts a little bit. Ahhhhhh. You feel a little bit better?
Let’s get the big picture again. Evolution, Darwinian macroevolution. Not micro-evolution in between, within species. The premise among non-Christian scientists of our day is that it is a faith issue. They’re believing that this is true. It’s not a fact.
Creation, at the end of the day, is a faith issue. On the basis of the creation, on the basis of God’s Word, on the basis of a number of things we’re going to talk about, archeology and prophecy and the words of Christ and the life of Christ and what God has done…we trust that God created what there is.